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Organic-inorganic hybrid electro-optic material with Disperse Red 1 chromophore fabricated by flow chemistry

Journal of Flow Chemistry


Flow chemistry(FC) has been studied extensively because of its well-known advantages, such as a precise controllability of process variables and superior mass and heat transferability, and the capability of process automation for the autonomous chemical synthesis platforms. In this study, FC was utilized to fabricate the bulky tirethoxysilane-modified Disperse Red 1 chromophore(TES-DR1) which showed electro-optic(EO) activity. The product yield of TES-DR1 was only 35% with a traditional batch method. However, the product yield was dramatically increased to 95% with the novel FC system in which the reaction could be performed above the boiling point of solvent, providing a sufficient energy to accelerate the reaction rate. The kinetics study also revealed that reaction mechanism was altered at high temperature region. During hybridization process, the TES-DR1 was well dispersed and chemically fixed in the organic-inorganic hybrid matrix which was composed of SiO2 and poly methylmethacrylate modified with tetramethyl orthosilicate (p(MMA/TMOS). With the successive electric-field poling process, the chromophores were aligned uniaxially in response to applied electric field and induced EO property. The average r33 value representing EO activity was 14.67 pm/V and it was not changed after 225℃ of thermal stability test, in which the r33 value of polymeric EO material is normally decreased around glass transition temperature because polymer matrix in rubbery state allows chromophore to move randomly. It seemed that TES-DR1 could be bound and confined to the stable hybrid framework, providing a restriction of chromophore movement at high temperature

J. Flow chem. (2021)